The sentient mind

“How selfish soever man may be supposed, there are evidently some principles in his nature, which interest him in the fortune of others, and render their happiness necessary to him, though he derives nothing from it except the pleasure of seeing it.” – Adam Smith

The apoptosome is a large protein complex formed during apoptosis, or programmed cell death. In your body, about 60 billion cells die every day by this process.

Whether it be a cell or a civilization, the existence of every living system depends on the coordination of its components. As the survival of the body depends on trillions of cells, the survival of the human system will require the cooperation of several billion minds. In the words of Jesus Christ and Abraham Lincoln, “a house divided against itself cannot stand.” Even with the smartest technology and the most innovative thinkers, our civilization will fall if it fails to realize this truth. But how on Earth do we get seven billion people to work together?

“An organism at war with itself is doomed. We are one planet.” – Carl Sagan    

From visions of heaven to concepts of utopia, we have long dreamed of a perfect world. But in these fantasies, the same thing has been altered: human nature. Scholars have for millennia concluded that our nature is incompatible with any ideal society. And today, this couldn’t seem more true. Whether it be anti-vaxxers or climate change deniers, humanity seems fated to self-destruction. We are a species persuaded by meaning rather than by evidence. We are short-sighted, too worried about our comfort to care about our survival. It seems that we are inherently selfish, and cooperation is impossible. But though we may despair, there is a solution that many have overlooked: human nature, as hopeless as it seems, is our only hope.

Donald Trump speaks during a campaign rally in Dallas. Photo by Laura Buckman.

Premise: Human nature is a given. If it’s not something we can change, then it’s something we must use—and the following is the only rational way to use it. The axioms in this argument are assumed based on both their logical plausibility and their practical utility for the survival of our species.

Unfortunately, we all have distorted perceptions of reality. Every mind is patterned to think in ways that produce inaccurate judgements and irrational behavior. In the last six decades, nearly 200 cognitive biases have been identified from research on human judgment and decision-making. And among these biases, one theme seems to dominate: for the mass majority, emotion defines reason—not the other way around.


Despite differences in culture and language, research indicates that both the neural encoding and physical experience of our emotions are remarkably consistent across different populations. Shown above, feelings increase (yellow) or decrease (blue) sensation in different areas of the body.

Parade of the SS Guard, the Nazi elite, at a Party rally in Nurmberg in the late 1930s.

“Human beings have a demonstrated talent for self-deception when their emotions are stirred.” – Carl Sagan

Emotion is how the mind assigns meaning and value to every conscious experience. Emotion drives our most pronounced behaviors and sustains our most powerful beliefs. Emotion alters our perception of reality and the scope of our morality. The truth is, our species is not as intelligent as sentient. We are guided not by how we think, but by how we feel. Thus, human nature suggests that the intellectual alignment of our species is dependent first on a shared emotional state. A global cooperation, then, would require a love that eliminates hate, a pride and happiness that includes every inhabitant of this planet. But these states of the sentient mind are, in nearly every circumstance, bound to a sense of purpose. And the greater the purpose, the more compelling the emotion, and the more powerful the unity. This principle of human nature is perhaps best illustrated by the religious mind and its craving for relevance.


“The deepest principle in human nature
is the craving to be appreciated.”
– William James    


“[Regarding religion], one is generally agreed that it deals with goals and evaluations and with the emotional foundation of human thinking and acting.” – Albert Einstein

From my reflection of human nature, I realized that the human mind is a system that can be hacked by ideas, especially by ideas that align our emotions towards a shared purpose (axiom 1). Whether it be the love of Jesus Christ or the pride of Nazi Germany, we want to be part of something relevant. We want to belong, and we are defined by the groups we belong to. As one former white nationalist observed, we have “three very fundamental human needs: identity, community, and a sense of purpose.”


“[Our] history can be viewed as a slowly dawning awareness that we are members of a larger group. Initially our loyalties were to ourselves and family; next, to bands of hunter-gatherers; then to tribes, settlements, and nations. We have broadened the circle of those we love. But if we are to survive, our loyalties must be broadened further, to include the whole human community, the entire planet Earth.” – Carl Sagan

The mind is drawn to two types of truths. The first is logical truth, conclusions about reality that we draw from evidence and reason. The second is teleological truth, assumptions about reality that we draw from intuition and faith. The first drives our scientific curiosity, and the second drives our search for meaning and purpose. This dichotomy reflects the apparent divide between the intelligent and sentient aspects of the human mind: reason vs emotion, sociopathy vs empathy, science vs religion. These two representations of reality guide the conception of every worldview, be it a party’s political ideology, a pastor’s biblical theology, or a physicist’s intellectual philosophy.

Nonetheless, the truth must appeal to both sides of human nature. Unifying humankind will require an idea that combines these perspectives into a reality that the mind finds irresistible. This idea must be both objectively reasonable and universally meaningful—both logically sound and intuitively profound. It must be bigger than any political platform, economic incentive, or religious belief. It must define a purpose towards which all emotions can be aligned, inspiring a moral cooperation that is unparalleled in human history.

Facebook Founder Mark Zuckerberg Delivers Commencement Address At Harvard

From Mark Zuckerberg’s commencement speech at Harvard University (2017):

“Today I want to talk about purpose. But I’m not here to give you the standard commencement about finding your purpose. We’re millennials. We’ll try to do that instinctively. Instead, I’m here to tell you finding your purpose isn’t enough. The challenge for our generation is creating a world where everyone has a sense of purpose.”


Our morality is limited by the extent of our emotion, and our unity by the scope of our purpose. If there is any optimism for mankind, any chance of unifying our species, then it remains in the possibility that our existence is, in fact, bound with a greater purpose. If we are to survive, then we must find an aim that is above ourselves and beyond our lifespans. Because human nature, as hopeless as it seems, is our only hope.

“If we long for our planet to be important, there is something we can do about it. We make our world significant by the courage of our questions and by the depth of our answers.” – Carl Sagan

NextScientists & sociopaths.
Please read in the order presented in Contents.

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